Do you know the functions of the four most critical parts of electric vehicles?
Electric vehicles are one of the main transportation tools that are indispensable for travel. The battery is the core power of electric vehicles. In fact, electric vehicles have the most critical "four major parts". Commonly known as the four major components of electric vehicles are the battery, motor, controller and charger. The following editors of the industrial design company will introduce the functions, structures and functions of the four major parts:
1. Electric vehicle battery: It is the power source of electric vehicle, the energy carrier, used to drive the motor, the battery voltage determines the working voltage of the vehicle, and the battery capacity is directly proportional to the continuous journey of the vehicle.
The structure of lead-acid batteries commonly used in electric vehicles is mainly composed of battery shells, positive plates, negative plates, separators, electrolyte, terminals, sealants, safety valves and other components. The types of batteries can be divided into: lithium-ion batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, gel batteries and maintenance-free lead-acid batteries. Among them, gel batteries and lead-acid batteries are commonly used. According to the voltage, it can be divided into 12V, 24V, 36V, 48V, 60V, etc. The most commonly used electric vehicles are 48V and 60V. According to the capacity specifications, it can be divided into: 10AH, 12AH, 17AH, 20AH, 22AH, etc. 12AH and 20AH batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles.
2. Electric vehicle motor: converts the chemical energy of the battery into mechanical energy, and converts the rotational energy into mechanical traction, so that the wheels rotate. The working voltage of the motor is inversely proportional to the working current, and the power of the motor is proportional to the climbing ability.
According to the way of energization, it can be divided into brush motor and brushless motor: A: brush motor is composed of iron core winding, magnetic steel sheet, carbon brush, carbon brush holder, commutator, etc., and it is exchanged by carbon brush and commutator The contact achieves the effect of regular operation. B: The brushless motor is composed of iron core winding, magnetic steel sheet, Hall element, etc. It relies on Hall (dielectric degree angle) commutation to achieve regular operation. According to the structure, the motors can be divided into: brushless and toothless, brushless and toothless, brushless and toothed, and brushed and toothed. The most commonly used is brushless and toothless motors. According to the working voltage, it can be divided into: 12V, 24V, 36V, 48V, 60V, 64V, etc. The most commonly used is 48V motor. According to the power, it can be divided into: 180W, 250W, 350W, 500W, 800W, 1000W, etc. The most commonly used are 350W and 500W motors.
3. Electric vehicle controller: control the output current of the battery, the voltage and then achieve the control of the motor speed and power, that is, the speed of the entire vehicle, to achieve the effect of controlling the entire vehicle. The main functions include stepless speed regulation, brake power failure, current limit protection, undervoltage protection, speed limit, speed display, 1:1 boost, etc.
According to the function and structure, it can be divided into two types: brush controller and brushless controller. According to the working voltage, it can be divided into: 24V, 36V, 48V, 60V, 64V, etc. The most commonly used is the 48V controller. According to the output power, it can be divided into: 180W, 250W, 350W, 500W, 800W, etc. The most commonly used controllers are 350W and 500W.
4. Electric vehicle charger: It is a device that replenishes battery energy to charge the battery. It can convert the city electricity into direct current and control its current and voltage to charge the battery and store it.
The charger is mainly composed of rectifier and filter, high voltage switch, voltage exchange and electric control. The working state has three stages: constant current, constant voltage and floating charge. A: Constant current is determined by the type of battery; B: Constant voltage is determined by the battery standard, conventionally with a single cell voltage of 14.7V-14.8V; C: Floating charge is determined by the battery standard, conventionally with a single cell The voltage is 13.8V-14V.
The above are the four major parts of electric vehicles. With the improvement of the innovative technology of industrial design companies, the quality of electric vehicles is getting better and better. There is no need to worry too much about these parts being damaged~